Much of the material in a rolled steel I Beam girder is un-necessary. Open web girders and trusses are perfectly structurally sound, and the only reason rolled steel girders have a solid web is that it would cost more to cut out the un-necessary material.
Steel Piles – The X Piles
Joining piles is an expensive procedure because it interrupts pile driving and causes costly delays. While it might be thought that steel piles may be readily joined by welding it actually takes hours – grinding bevels, multiple passes, distortion control, etc.. The X Pile solves this problem because additional lengths can be joined on in a matter of minutes. X Pile ends fit together neatly to form a lap joint, stronger than the parent metal. Bolting via the pre-punched holes is a quick and simple task, and for “belt and braces” engineers, fillet welding is an option.
Pile Load Tester
Nowadays sophisticated instrumentation and computer analysis is used to measure pile capacity, but the high cost and inconvenience limits its use. Hence most piles are still assessed by the traditional Hiley formula which measures the number of hammer blows for a given pile displacement, taking into account pile and hammer masses, height of fall, etc..